Wednesday, 26 August 2015

English Grammer for KIDS

DefinitionA Noun  is a word used as the name of a person, place, thing, quality, state/condition/position/attitude/action etc

    Person : Dave, John, Ahmad
    Place : Library, Hospital
    Thing : Toy, Doll
    Quality : Depth, Bravery
    State/Condition/Position/Attitude : Health, illness, sleep, poverty, life
    Action : game, worship

Look at the following sentences :- 
1) David is a boy.
2) Life is a game.
3) The sun shine in the sky.
4) Work is a worship.
5) Earth is a planet.

In the above sentences, the words printed in black are nouns

  Kinds of Nouns :
  1. Proper Noun
  2. Common Noun
  3. Collective Noun
  4. Abstract Noun
  5. Material Noun

Definition : A Proper Noun is the (individual) name of a particular person, place or thing as Nile, Texas, Bible, London.

Look at the following sentences :- 
1) John is 20 years old.
2) London is in UK.
3) Paris is the capital of France.
4) Christmas is on 25th December

In the above sentences, the words printed in bold and italics are Proper Nouns.

Definition : A Common Noun is the name shared commonly by every person, place or thing of the same class or kind as book, toy, cow, lake, utensil etc.

Look at the following sentences :- 
1) USA is a country.
2) Peter is a boy.
3) Texas is a city.
4) Samantha is a girl.
5) Nile is a river.
6) June is a month.
7) Dog is a  animal.
8) I write with a pencil.

In the above sentences, the words printed in bold and italics are Common Nouns. These names are commonly shared by every person, place or thing of their kind or class.
  • Collective Nouns and Abstract Nouns are also include in Common Nouns.

Definition :  A Collective noun is the name given to group (collection) of persons, places or things etc. : As- army, bunch, herd, flock, crowd.
Look at the following sentences :- 
1) There are three sections in our class.
2) Thomson has joined the army.
3) Our team has 12 players.
4) My family lives in NewYork.
5) I am a member of your club.
6) The police scattered the crowd.

In the above sentences, the words printed in bold and italics gives the indication about the group (collection) of nouns. 

Definition : An Abstract Noun is the name of a feeling, emotion, sentiment, action, quality, state or art etc. 
Look at the following sentences :- 

1) Honesty is the best policy.
2) Childhood is the period of beauty.
3) Everybody likes goodness.
4) Love begets love.
5) Hatred is a bad quality.
6) I like your wisdom.
7) Her heart is full of hatred.

In the above sentences, the words printed in bold and italics gives the indication about the group (collection) of nouns. 
Definition : A Material Noun is the name given to a material substance of which various things (items) are made; as mud, glass, paper, silver,copper, oil, plastics.

1) Sweets are made of sugar, butter, milk, Maida and water.
2) Ornaments are made of gold, silver and cooper.
3) Tools are made of iron.
4) The table is made of wood.
5) Cloth is made of cotton.
6) Sweaters are made of wool

In the above sentences, the words printed in bold and italics gives the indication about Material Nouns. These are raw material with which other items can be prepared.

Countable Nouns : - 

These nouns include the names of objets, people etc. that we can count e.g.. pencil, girls, bananas, brothers etc. Common Noun and Collective Nouns comes under countable nouns e.g.. class,team, herd, flock etc. countable nouns also have plural forms. We normally use a or an before Countable Nouns of Singular Number. Compound Nouns, composed of two or more words also come under Countable Nouns.
Countable (or count)nouns are words which can be counted. They have a singular form and a plural form. They usually refer to things. Most countable nouns become plural by adding an ‘s’ at the end of the word. 
For example:

Uncountable Nouns : - 
These nouns include the names of objects,  people etc. that we cannot count. Material Nouns and Abstract Nouns come under Uncountable Nouns. They show the quantity, mass or idea/feeling of an object e.g.  boyhood, beauty, cold, cotton,  happiness, milk, oil, rice, sugar, water, truth.
Uncountable (or non-count)nouns are words which cannot be counted. Therefore, they only have a singular form. They have no plural forms. These words are thought of as wholes rather than as parts. They usually refer to abstractions (such as confidence or advice) or collectives (such as equipment or luggage).
For example:


Definition :  A Pronoun is a word used in place of a noun or noun phrase e.g.
1) Dave is absent as he (Dave) is ill.
2) The car is there where John left it (the car).
3)  Joe and Sandy are taking their (Joe’s and Sandy’s) breakfast.
Remember that ‘I,we’ are First Person Pronouns, ‘you, thou’ are Second Person Pronoun and ‘He, She, It They, are Third Person Pronouns

1) Personal Pronouns.
2) Relative Pronouns.
3) Interrogative Pronouns
4) Demonstrative Pronouns
5) Distributive Pronouns.
6) Indefinite Pronouns.
7) Reflexive Pronouns.
8) Reciprocal Pronouns.

A) PERSONAL PRONOUNS are used for person; as- I, we, you, he, she, they 
We use ‘I or we’ for the speakers
We use ‘You’ for the hearer.
We use ‘He, She or They’ for the persons about whom they both (I/we, you) talk.
Personal Pronouns are as under
1) First Person Pronouns : 
 The Pronoun(s) which the speaker(s) uses for himself (use) for himself (themselves) is (are) known as First Person Personal Pronoun (s), as
1) I am speaking.
2) We are walking.
3) I do my work.
4) We go to our school.
5) Mohan helps me.
6) Sandy gives us toffees.
7) This book is mine.
8) That house is ours.

2) Second Person Pronouns
 The Pronoun (s) which the speaker (s) uses (use) for the hearer (s) is (are) known as Second Person Pronoun (s), as
1) You are a boy.
2) Oh, God, Thou are great.
3) You should obey your parents.
4) Is this house yours?
5) Is this book thine (yours) ?
6) I am offering Thee my prayers.
Please remember that ‘you’ is used both for a single hearer. as well as a number of hearers.

3) Third Person Pronouns
The pronoun which the speaker and the hearer use for the person about whom they both talk is known as Third Person Personal Pronoun, as
1) He is coming.
2) He irons his shirt.
3) She is sleeping.
4) She is cleaning her room.
5) They are reading.
6) They are reading their books.
7) Are those bags theirs?
8) Give him four rupees.
9) Is this book hers?
10) Give them a warning.

Forms Number
Gender (Nominative)
Function Possessive (Accusative)
my, mine

our, ours
your, yours

Thy, Thine

yours, yours

her, hers



The Relative Pronoun Join two sentences and show their relation with their antecedents, as.
1) I know the boy. He (The boy) is a swimmer. By joining these two sentences, we can re-write them as
I know the boy who is a swimmer.
‘who’ in the above sentences is a relative pronoun which joins the two sentences. ‘who’ shows its relation with ‘the boy’ (its antecedent).

2) This is the girl. I like her. By joining these two sentences, we can re-write them, as
This is the girl whom I like.
‘Whom’ in the above sentences is a relative pronoun which joins the two sentences. ‘whom’ shows its relation
with ‘the girl’  (its antecedent).

Kinds of Relative Pronouns:
1) Continuative :  The Continuative relative pronoun does not show the quality (speciality) of its antecedent Noun, as,
i) I met Rose who (and she) gave me a pen.
ii) Mr Paul released the pigeon which (and it) flew away.
iii) He hit the glass which (and it) fell into pieces.

Who and Which’ in the above sentences add something to the statement existing before them. However, they do not qualify their antecedent Nouns (Rose, Pigeon and Glass). Therefore, they do not introduce Adjective Clauses. This begin Co-ordinate Clauses. Such types of co-ordinate clauses can often be separated from the remaining part of the sentences by inserting a comma.
Remember that no other pronoun except ‘who and which’ can be used in continuative form

2)  Restrictive/Relative Pronouns : It qualifies its antecedent Noun: as
i) I know the girl who has stolen your bag.
ii) Tell me the name of the boy whom you want to see.
iii) Where is the frock which I presented you?
iv) Bring me the book that is lying on the floor.

In sentence NO. 1. ‘Who’ refers to a certain girl.
In sentence NO. 2. ‘Whom’ refers to a certain boy.
In sentence NO. 3. ‘Which’ refers to a certain frock.
In sentence NO. 4. ‘That’ refers to a certain book.

Remember that the is invariably put before the antecedent Noun of a relative pronoun in restrictive sense, as
the girl, the boy, the frock, the book


These pronouns are used in asking questions : as
1) When did you come here ?
2) What is wrong with you ? 
3) Whom did you call ? 
4) How goes the world with you ? 
5) Which is your toy ? 
6) Where is your coat ? 
7) When did you come here ?
8) Who teaches you English ?
9) Whose pen is this ?

Remember that : 
‘Who, Whose, Whom’ are used for persons.
‘What’ is used for things.
‘Which’ is used both for persons and things.
It always denotes the selection

 These pronouns are used to pinpoint some noun ; as
1) This is my umbrella.
2) That is your house.
3) These are your dolls.
4) Those are cows.

Remember that :
i) Demonstrative Pronouns is immediately preceded by a Verb.
ii) ‘This and these’ show ‘nearness’
iii) ‘That and those’ show ‘remoteness or distance’
iv) ‘This and that’ are singular number.
v) ‘These and those’ are plural number.
vi) ‘That’ preceded by a verb will be termed as Demonstrative Pronoun. In the same way, ‘that’ pinpointing (referring to) its antecedent Noun will be termed as Relative Pronoun ; as
1) It was he that led me to trouble.
(Here ‘that’ is a demonstrative Pronoun which refer to ‘he’ (a certain person))
2) That is the house where I live.
(Here ‘that’ is a Demonstrative Pronoun which is followed by the verb (is) and it refers to the noun (house))

These pronouns are used for each of the persons, things etc. used in the sentences ; as - 
i) Choose either of these two shirts.
ii) Neither of the two sisters is intelligent.
iii) Each of you can attend the meeting.
iv) None of them could catch the thief.
v) Why did you not buy any book.

Remember that :
Each, either and neither are followed by the noun and verb of singular number.
‘Either and neither’ are used in speaking of two persons or things. ‘Either’ means ‘the one to the other of two’ Sometimes ‘either’ means ‘both’ as there are trees on either bank of the river. ‘Neither’ means - ‘not the one, nor the other of two’. It is the negative of ‘either’
‘Any’ is used in the case of more than two persons or things. 

These pronouns do not refer to some definite person or thing ; as,
i) All of us were in danger.
ii) Many of the passengers were killed.
iii) Never tease others.
iv) None but you could solve the sum.
v) Nobody came for my help.
vi) Some are genius by birth.
vii) One should do one’s duty.
viii) Somebody molested her.

Remember that :
All, any, anybody, everyone, everybody, few, many, no, one, none, one, some, same, somebody etc are Indefinite Pronoun.
Use he/she after everyone, everybody, anybody according to the contextual requirement : as Everyone likes his own circle of friends.(Here, ‘his’ has been used after everyone because the sex(male/female) has not been mentioned here).

These pronouns show that the subject alone is affected by the action (verb) and no one else ; as
1) I iron my clothes myself.
2) She can wash her clothes herself.
3) We do the cooking ourselves.
4) They can help themselves.
5) You solved the sum yourself.
6) It cracked itself.
7) You can go home yourselves.
8) One should depend on oneself.
9) He can drive the scooter himself.

Remember the : 
i) ‘Self’ is used with ‘my, him, her, it and one’.
ii) ‘Selves’ is used with ‘our, your and them’.
iii) ’Self’ is also used with ‘your (singular)’.

These pronouns are formed by joining two pronouns and show mutual/reciprocal relationship : as
1) John and Shimantha love each other.
2) Neelam, Parul and Ankita hep one another.

Remember that :
i) ‘Each other’ is used in case of two persons or things.
ii) ‘One another’ is used in case of more than two persons or things.


(i) If different pronouns are to be used in a single sentence. put them in the order of ‘Second person, third person and first person. as 

You. he and I are close friends. 

(ii) If different pronouns are to be used in a single sentence. and one's own fault is confessed, put them in the order of first person. third person and second person. as 

I, he and you are pick—pockets. 
He and you have robbed me.
I and you have stolen this scooter. 

(iii) If certain pronouns refer to different persons, use first person plural (we) instead of second person and second person plural instead of third person, as 

1) You and she have robbed your relatives. 
2) We and you have spoiled our careers. 
3) You and they should improve your handwriting. 

(iv) Always use Singular Number Pronouns, in case a Collective Noun refers to the whole group ; as 

The class respects its monitor. 

(v) Always use plural Number Pronouns, in case a Collective Noun refers to various persons of the group separately ; as 

The committee left their seats in despair. 

(vi) Use the Plural Number Pronoun if two or more than two Singular Number Nouns are joined by and , as 

Mohan and Tinku help each other. 

(vii) Use the Singular Number Pronoun if two or more than two Singular Number Nouns, joined by and refer to a single person or thing (object), as 

1) Slow and steady wins the race. 
2) The book and stationery stall is quite near. 

(viii) Use the Singular Pronoun with Singular Nouns joined by Or, either..... or, neither ..... .. nor. as- 

Neither John nor Jonathan has secured first division. 

(ix) Use ‘mine, ours. yours. hers and theirs’ in lieu of ‘my, our, your, her, and their’ if the Possessive Case Pronoun is separated from a Noun by means of a verb , as 

1) This scooter is mine. 
2) That classroom is ours.
3) These toys are theirs.

(x) Use the Nominative Case Pronoun if a sentence begins with ‘it’ , as 

1) It is I.
2) It is we. 
3) It is she.
4) It is they.

 (xi) Use the Objective case after ‘let, like, between, but and prepositions’. as 

1) Let me have my turn. 
2) This is between her and us 
3) You should not rely on them. 
4) Everyone was there but him. 
5) You like me are also a loser. 

(xii) Put the Emphatic Pronoun close to the Subject and the Reflexive Pronoun away from the Subject, as 

1) She herself caught the thief. (Emphatic)
2) She ruined herself in her youth. (Reflexive)


Definition : An Adjective is a word that expresses some quality of a noun or pronoun or adds something to their meanings as. 

Liza is a bold girl. 
Luis was a great king. 
John’s mother is a kind lady. 

The words bold. great and kind are adjectives here. They express the qualities of the nouns girl, king and lady respectively. 

She (Liza) is wise
They are silly
He (John) is dull
I am fat
You are honest

The words wise. silly, dull, fat, and honest are adjectives here. They express the qualities of the pronouns she (Liza), they, he (John), I, and you respectively. 


There are the following seven divisions of Adjectives. 

(i) Adjective of Quality. 
(ii) Adjective of Quantity. 
(iii) Adjective of Number. 
(iv) Demonstrative Adjective. 
(v) Interrogative Adjective. 
(vi) Distributive Adjective. 
(vii) Possessive Adjectives. 

(i) Adjective of Quality : These adjectives show the qualities, disqualities or shape/colour etc; as 

1. Manoj is a brave boy. 
2. Hari is a mean fellow. 
3. Preet Kaur is a black woman. 
4. You are an honest girl. 
5. Ashoka was a great King. 
6. The Ganges is a holy river. 

(ii) Adjective of Quantity : These adjectives show the quantity of a thing ; as 

1. l have some money to spend. 
2. The lion ate up the whole goat. 
3. I could not get any taxi. 

(iii) Adjective of Number : These adjectives show the number of persons or objects ; as 

1. I have a dozen pets. 
2. The girl sitting in the fourth row is very naughty. 
3. A student has few cares. 
4. Several passengers died in the accident. 

Types of Adjective of Number : 

(i) Definite Adjective of Number denotes the exact number ; as a dozen in sentence No.1 and the fourth in sentence No. 2 above. 

(ii) Indefinite Adjective of Number denotes the uncertainty of the number ; as few in Sentence No. 3 and Several in Sentence No. 4 above.


Supply appropriate Adjectives (of quality/quantity or number) in the following blanks : 

1) Robert is my ........ friend. 
2)  I have .......... money with me. 
3)  There is not ........ .. water in the jug. 
4)  ......... the cats feed on the rats. 
5)  .......... students generally fail.
6)  I want .......... tea. 
7)  You do not have ...... experience. 
8)  Sunday is the day of the week. 
9)  I have ......... book at all. 
10)  I do not have ......... friend in Delhi. 
11)  .......... girls failed this year. 
12)  You are not ............ boy. 

(iv) Demonstrative Adjectives pinpoint the nouns, used immediately 
after them ; as 

1. This boy is careless. 
2. These apples are rotten. 
3. That girl is very smart. 
4. Those bananas are ripe. 

Remember that 

‘This’ is Singular and ‘These’ is plural. They (This and These) are used to pinpoint the persons or things present nearby. 
‘That’ is Singular and ‘Those’ is plural. They (That and those) are used to pinpoint the persons and things present at some distance.

 Distinction between Demonstrative Adjective and Demonstrative Pronoun

 Demonstrative Adjective is succeeded by a Noun but a Demonstrative Pronoun is not succeeded (followed) by any Noun ; as 

That is a picture. (Demonstrative Pronoun) 
Those girls are intelligent. (Demonstrative Adjective) 

(v) Interrogative Adjective : These adjectives are used for making enquiries or asking questions ; as 

1. Whose pen is this ? 
2. Which saree do you like ? 
3. What time is it? 

Distinction between Interrogative Adjective and Interrogative Pronouns

Interrogative Adjective is followed (succeeded) by a Noun but an Interrogative pronoun is not succeeded by any Noun ; as 

Which book is hers ? (Interrogative Adjective) 
Which is her book ? (Interrogative Pronoun) 

(vi) Distributive Adjective : These adjectives are used to show each and every individual person or thing of a class/group ; as 

1. Each boy took the breakfast. 
2. Either drink (coffee or tea) will do. 
3. Every teacher is honest. 
4. Neither girl is lazy. 

Distinction between Distributive Adjective and Distributive Pronoun

Distributive Adjective is succeeded by a Noun but a Distributive Pronoun is not succeeded by any.Noun ; as

Either of them should join the club. (Distributive Pronoun) 
Either fruit will please her. (Distributive Adjective) 

Note that - Each, every, neither, either are used as Distributive Adjective.

(vii) Possessive Adjective : These adjectives show relation with certain 
persons or things ; as 

1. My cousin is an officer. 
2. Her saree is colourful. 
3. Your books are useful. 
4. Their house is large. 

Types of ‘uses of Adjectives’ 

A) Attributively : When used attributively, the Adjective precedes a Noun: as 

The intelligent girl stood first. 

B) Predicatively : Here, the adjective is used with the verb and becomes the part of the predicate ; as 

The girl is intelligent 


Look at the following sentences : 
1. Liza is a smart girl. 
2. Liza is smarter than Samantha.
3. Liza is the smartest girl in our house. 

In sentence No.1. the word (adjective) - smart shows the quality of Liza in the normal and usual way. 
In sentence No.2. the word (adjective) - smarter compares the quality of Liza with that of Samantha . 
In sentence No. 3, the word (adjective) - smartest compares Liza’s quality with the qualities of other girls in her class. 

The words - smart. smarter and smartest show comparison - As such, they are termed as Degrees of Comparison. 

Kinds of Degree of Comparison 

1) Positive Degree : It shows the normal and general quality or disquality of a person of things ; as 

John is a tall boy. 

2) Comparative Degree : It shows the comparison between the qualities or disqualities of two persons or things ; as 

John is taller than Carl. 

3) Superlative Degree. It shows the comparison of the quality or disquality of a person or thing with the qualities or disqualities of more than two persons or things of the same class ; as 

John is the tallest boy in the class. 

Remember that only Adjectives of Quality and Adjectives of Quantity have Degrees of Comparison.


(i) All, whole 

‘All’ shows both the quantity and the number but ‘whole’ shows only the quantity ; as 

All the apples are rotten. 
She dropped all the milk. 
She sold the whole milk. 

Please remember that ‘the’ is added before whole (the whole) and after All (All the) 

(ii) Each, Every 

‘Each’ is used for every person out of two or more persons and it provides understanding about a definite number ; as 

Each of the four girls is absent.
The Principal has expelled each of the five late-comers. 

‘Every’ is used to give indication of a group as a whole. It provides information about an indefinite number ; as 

You have borrowed money form every teacher.

(iii) Some, any

‘Some’ is used in affirmative sentences in the sense of ‘a little‘. 
‘Some’ is also used in interrogative sentences when the answer of the question is expected to be in the affirmative ; as 

Shall I lend you some money ? 
Will you distribute some posters ? 

‘Any’ is used both in Negative and Interrogative sentences in the sense of ‘a little’ ; as 

Have you any spare pen ? 
‘The bride did not speak any word. 

(iv) Each other, One another 

‘Each other’ shows the mutual relationship between two persons or things : as 
Seema and Daize quarrelled with each other. 

‘One another’ shows the mutual relationship among three persons/ objects (things) or more : as 

Sushma. Madhu and Anuradha quarrelled with one another 

(v) Either, Neither, Any, Any other 

Either’ means ‘one or both of the two’ 
‘Neither’ means ‘No one out of the two’ 
‘Any’ means ‘one or more’ but of many (more than two).

There are trees on either side of the road (Both). 
I shall support either Amit or Rahul. (One) 
Raman belongs to neither group. 
You may choose any saree you like. 
Usha is taller than any other girl of (in) her class (The word ‘other’ must be used in this sentence. Otherwise. the meaning of the sentence will not become clear.) 

(iv) Many, Many a, Much 

‘Many’ means ‘consisting of a large number’ It is used before Common Nouns to show their number. Plural Noun is used after it (Many) : as 

There are many flower plants in the park. 

‘Many a’ (also) means ‘consisting of a large number‘. It is (also) used before Common Nouns to show their number. A singular noun is used alter it (Many a) ; as 

Many a flower fades unseen. 

‘Much’ means ‘Great number’. It shown ‘quantity or degree’ : as 
There is much pollution in Delhi. 

(vii) Little, A Little, The Little 

‘Little’ means ‘quite small ; of smallest size ; not much in size’ : as 

There is little water in the bucket 

‘A Little’ means ‘nearly sufficient to fulfil requirement but not much’. It is used in the positive ; as 

The calf is made to drink a little milk.

 ‘The Little’ means ‘the whole quantity of negligible size’. It points towards the aforementioned objects ; as
 I have lost the little money I had earnt.

 (viii) Few, A few, The Few
 ‘Few’ means ‘a fair number : not many but more than one ; a negligible and insignificant number. It shows the negative side. It gives an indication of number ; as 

I have few friends. 
Few boys got first division. 

‘A few’ means ‘some or several but not many in number’. It is used in the Positive to pinpoint a small number of persons or things; as 

A few girls can prepare dainty dishes. 
Rajeshwari stayed with me for a few days. 

‘The few’ means ‘the whole number though small. negligible and insignificant’ as 
The few friends he had. deserted him. 

(ix) Later, Latest ; Latter, Last 
‘Later and Latest’ are an indication of time ; as
I shall tell you this secret later. 
What is the latest news ? 

‘Latter and Last’ are an indication of position or order ; as 

Out of the two students who came late. the former is a boy and the latter is a girl. 
I handed over my answer book last of all. 

(x) Farther, Further ; First, Foremost; Nearest, Next ; Outer, Utter, ‘Farther’ means ‘at a still more distance’ : as 

The nearer the church. the farther from Christ. 

‘Further’ means ‘at more distance and additional’ ; as 
you need further coaching. 

‘First’ is an indication of order or position ; as 

I was the first to oppose the proposal. 

‘Foremost’ means ‘most significant’ ; as 

To serve our aged parents is our foremost duty. 

‘Nearest’ means ‘located at a nearby place’ ; as 

I got admission in the nearest school. 

‘Next’ means ‘closely succeeding time. person or thing’ ; as
 I missed one bus but caught the next. Send the next man. 

‘Outer’ shows location. stage/state or phase : as 

The thieves jumped over the outer wall and entered the house.

‘Utter’ shows the ultimate or extreme position : as 
John took up begging in utter poverty.

Here are some simple rules to keep in mind when forming comparatives and superlatives.
For most adjectives, ‘er’ is added for the comparative form and ‘est’ for the superlative form. 
Tall – Taller – Tallest
Strong – Stronger – Strongest
Short – Shorter – Shorter
Kind – Kinder - Kindest
For adjectives ending with ‘e’, ‘r’ is added for the comparative form and ‘st’ for the superlative form. 
Wise – Wiser – Wisest
Large – Larger – Largest
Nice – Nicer – Nicest
Fine – Finer - Finest
For adjectives ending with ‘y’, ‘y’ is removed and ‘ier’ is added for comparative form and ‘iest’ for the superlative form.
Lazy – Lazier – Laziest
Crazy – Crazier – Craziest
Wealthy – Wealthier – Wealthiest
Heavy – Heavier - Heaviest
Usually for longer adjectives, ‘more’ + adjective is used for comparative form and ‘most’ + adjective is used for superlative form.
Handsome – More Handsome – Most Handsome
Beautiful – More Beautiful – Most Beautiful
Intelligent – More Intelligent – Most Intelligent
Difficult – More Difficult – Most Difficult
Irregular Adjectives: There are some irregular adjectives for which the comparative and superlative form follow no particular rule.
Good – Better – Best
Bad – Worse – Worst
Many – More – Most
Little – Less - Least


Verbs can be divided into the following classes. 

(i) Auxiliary Verbs 
(ii) Ordinary Verbs 
(iii) Verbs of incomplete Predication 

(i) Auxiliary Verbs. They are the verbs that help their principal verbs to form their tenses, voices, moods or negative sentences ; as 

1. I do not sing a song. 
2. She is writing a letter.
3. You have eaten a banana. 
4. Did we go to school yesterday ? 
5. Was he solving the sums? 
6. They had returned our books. 
7. You will read the book. 
8. O ! that you might write neatly. 
9. A rat is killed by a boy. 

The verbs printed in Italics in sentences 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 help the main verbs and form tenses. Sentence number 1 is a negative sentence. The verbs printed in Italics in sentences 4 and 5. help the main verbs and form tenses. Being used in the beginning of the sentences they form interrogative sentences. 

Sentence No. 8 shows the mood (desire). 

Sentence. 9 is a Passive Voice. 

Kinds/Types of Auxiliary Verbs

a) Chief/Primary Auxiliary Verbs

 To be (Is, am, are, was, were)
 To do (do, does, did)
 To have (has, have, had)

Chief/Primary Auxiliary Verbs can be used as Main/Finite Verbs: as. 

I do my work.
I have a scooter. 
She does her work. 
He has no pen. 
You did your sums.
Nikunj had a toy.
Delhi is the capital of India. 
They were at home. 
You are a clever girl. 
I am fifteen years old. 
My mother was tall. 

(b) Modal Auxiliaries : Will, shall, can, could, may, might. would, should, must, dare, need, used to, ought to etc. are called Modal Auxiliaries. 

Modal Auxiliaries can be used invariably as Helping Verbs ; as 

We should do our duty. 
You must try your luck. 
You can speak English. 
We ought to.serve our parents. 
It may rain today. 
You need not worry. 
She might not come. 
Dare he go against you ? 
She used to take exercise daily. 

Please Note that Modal Auxiliaries are never used alone. They are always used with the chief (Main/Principal) Verbs. 


Provide suitable auxiliary verbs in the following sentences : 

1. He ........... not play. 

2. I ........ writing a letter. 

3. You..... solving the sums. 

4. She ....... broken her slate. 

5. They .......not return home. 

6. You ...... making a noise. 

7. I ....... help you. 

8. You ........ gone to school. 

Hints : 1. does, 2. am, 3. are, 4. has, 5. did, 6. were, 7. shall, 8. will have. 

(ii) Ordinary Verbs 
Ordinary Verbs are of the following two kinds : 
(a) Finite Verbs, 
(b) Non - Finites 

(a) Finite Verbs : These verbs change their forms according to the persons, number and tense of the subjects ; as 

I/We/you/they play. 
He/she plays. 
It rains. 

Types of Finite Verbs 
(i) Transitive Verbs 
(ii) Intransitive Verbs 
(iii) Auxiliary Verbs 

(i) Transitive Verbs : Transitive Verbs are followed by an object ; as 
 1. Rashmi bought a ball
 2. Sharad recited a poem
 3. Children like toffees
 4. She gave me, a book

Find out the answer to ‘What or Whom’ to locate the object 

In sentence No. 1 - What did Rashmi buy ? Ans. a ball. 

In sentence No. 2 - What did Sharad recite ? Ans. a poem. 

In sentence No.3 - What do the children like ? Ans. toffees. 

In sentence No. 4 - What did she give me ? Ans. a book. 

and Whom did she give the book ?' Ans. me. 

Remember that the verbs (bought, recited, like and gave) used before the objects (a ball, a poem, toffees me and a book) in the above sentences are Transitive Verbs. 

Please note that a Transitive Verb is sometimes followed by two objects, like me and a book in sentence No. 4 above. 

In sentences with two objects.the object which is the answer to ‘what’ is called the Direct object. 

 what did she give me ? Ans. a book . 

 Therefore, a book is the Direct object 

  Similar, in sentences with two objects. the object which is the answer to ‘whom’ is called the indirect object.

Whom did she give a book / Ans. me
Therefore, me is the Indirect object. 

Indirect object generally precedes the Direct Object. 

The following Verbs, normally have two objects each:

 ask, give, grant, offer, promise, teach, tell, show etc 

(ii) Intransitive Verbs : No objects are needed alter these (Intransitive) 
Verbs ; as 

1. The scooter runs last. 
2. The slate breaks.
3. Wood floats on water.  
4. The fire burns. 

These sentences do not respond to the answer of ‘What and Whom’. 
Therefore. the Verbs (runs, breaks, floats, burns etc) used here are - Intransitive Verbs. 

Some Verbs can be used both transitively and intransitively : as 

Verbs used Intransitively       Verbs used Transitively 

Kites fly.                                    The children fly kites. 
She runs.                                    She runs a race. 
The glass broke.                        She broke the glass. 

Please note : Some Intransitive Verbs are followed by Nouns which have similar meanings to the meanings of the Verbs. Those nouns are termed as Cognate objects : as 

She saw a dreadful sight. (See Verb—Sight Noun) 
I slept a disturbed sleep. (Sleep Verb-Sleep Noun) 
You fought a brave fight. (Fight Verb-Fight Noun) 

The nouns-sight, sleep and fight in the above sentences are cognate objects. 

Some Intransitive Verbs can be turned into Transitive Verbs by adding a preposition after each of them ; as 

Don't laugh at the widow. 

The Director into looked the matter. 

Prepositions (like at/into) are added immediately after the verbs (laugh/ looked) in the above sentences. Therefore, they are termed as Prepositional Verbs. 

The Intransitive Verb becomes a Transitive Verb. if it is used in the causative sense ; as 

Intransitive      Transitive 

I sang.           She made me sing a song (caused to sing) 
The tree fell.    The woodcutter felled the tree. (caused to fall)

Thursday, 27 June 2013

No Questions Quiz 1                                                                                     Answers

1 Carl and the Passions changed band name to what                                   Beach Boys
2 How many rings on the Olympic flag                                                             Five
3 What colour is vermilion a shade of                                                               Red
4 King Zog ruled which country                                                                     Albania
5 What colour is Spock's blood                                                                    Green
6 Where in your body is your patella                                                    Knee ( it's the kneecap )
7 Where can you find London bridge today                                                USA ( Arizona )
8 What spirit is mixed with ginger beer in a Moscow mule                               Vodka
9 Who was the first man in space                                                               Yuri Gagarin
10 What would you do with a Yashmak                                              Wear it - it's an Arab veil
11 Who betrayed Jesus to the Romans                                                     Judas Escariot
12 Which animal lays eggs                                                                      Duck billed platypus
13 On television what was Flipper                                                                Dolphin
14 Who's band was The Quarrymen                                                           John Lenon
15 Which was the most successful Grand National horse                              Red Rum
16 Who starred as the Six Million Dollar Man                                            Lee Majors
17 In the song Waltzing Matilda - What is a Jumbuck                                     Sheep
18 Who was Dan Dare's greatest enemy in the Eagle                                     Mekon
19 What is Dick Grayson better known as                                         Robin (Batman and Robin)
20 What was given on the fourth day of Christmas                                      Calling birds
21 What was Skippy ( on TV )                                                            The bush kangaroo
22 What does a funambulist do                                                             Tightrope walker
23 What is the name of Dennis the Menace's dog                                         Gnasher
24 What are bactrians and dromedaries                                             Camels (one hump or two)
25 Who played The Fugitive                                                                     David Jason
26 Who was the King of Swing                                                             Benny Goodman
27 Who was the first man to fly across the channel                                     Louis Bleriot
28 Who starred as Rocky Balboa                                                            Sylvester Stallone
29 In which war was the charge of the Light Brigade                                       Crimean
30 Who invented the television                                                                  John Logie Baird
31 Who would use a mashie niblick                                                                Golfer
32 In the song who killed Cock Robin                                                           Sparrow
33 What do deciduous trees do                                                               Lose their leaves in winter
34 In golf what name is given to the No 3 wood                                               Spoon
35 If you has caries who would you consult                                          Dentist - its tooth decay
36 What other name is Mellor’s famously known by                               Lady Chatterlys Lover
37 What did Jack Horner pull from his pie                                                         Plum
38 How many feet in a fathom                                                                            Six
39 which film had song Springtime for Hitler                                                The Producers
40 Name the legless fighter pilot of ww2                                                       Douglas Bader
41 What was the name of inn in Treasure Island                                          Admiral Benbow
42 What was Erich Weiss better known as                                                 Harry Houdini
43 Who sailed in the Nina - Pinta and Santa Maria                                 Christopher Columbus
44 Which leader died in St Helena                                                           Napoleon Bonaparte
45 Who wrote Gone with the Wind                                                         Margaret Mitchell
46 What does ring a ring a roses refer to                                                 The Black Death
47 Whose nose grew when he told a lie                                                          Pinocchio
48 Who has won the most Oscars                                                                 Walt Disney
49 What would a Scotsman do with a spurtle                                      Eat porridge (it’s a spoon)
50 Which award has the words for valour on it                                            Victoria Cross